Civil engineering is the field that involves planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and supervising the construction of structures, bridges, buildings, tunnels, etc. From huge dams to skyscrapers, from suspension bridges to offshore drilling platforms, every physical
Civil engineering is the field that involves planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and supervising
the construction of structures, bridges, buildings, tunnels, etc. From huge dams to skyscrapers, from
suspension bridges to offshore drilling platforms, every physical concrete structure comes under civil
Civil engineering is one of the oldest branches and primary discipline of engineering. Civil engineering
has shaped the history of nations around the world from ancient times. The usage of civil engineering
dates back to ancient times as early as 3000 to 4000 BC. Pyramids in Egypt, Mesopotamia of Iraq, Stupas
of India and Sri Lanka, Great Wall of China, Colosseum in Rome, Temple of Claudius, and Taj Mahal are
just a few examples of flawless civil engineering skills. Some of the world’s oldest civilizations such as
Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Indus Valley Civilization are also the product of immaculate civil
The term ‘Civil Engineering’ was actually coined in the 18 th century and the term incorporated all things
civilian as opposed to military engineering. The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. He
constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse and is also known as the ‘Father of Civil Engineering’.
Civil engineers are people who construct, design, supervise, operate and maintain large construction
projects and systems. They perform all the functions involved in the construction process. They plan,
design and analyze each and every part of the structure before starting the actual construction. They do
so by working closely with other professionals such as architects, consultants, contractors and suppliers.
Various projects undertaken by them include high-rise buildings, metros, roads, harbors, airports,
tunnels, bridges, dams, sewage systems and water supply, to name just a few! Civil engineers have
indeed made tremendous contributions to maintain and improve the standard of living, safety and
Various skills required by civil engineers include technical skills, analytical skills, critical thinking,
communication skills, leadership qualities, etc. At every stage of the project from planning and design to
construction, they will have to solve complex technical issues and provide efficient, cost-effective
solutions. They will also have to manage a diverse team of people with widely varying skill sets and
Sub-branches of Civil Engineering
Civil engineering is one of the most diverse engineering branches. Some of the main specializations or
sub-disciplines coming under it include:
Construction Engineering: It is primarily concerned with the management and oversight of an
entire construction project. It involves all concerned aspects include planning, transportation of
materials, site development, logistical operations, coordination with contractors, ensuring that
the projects are completed efficiently, safely and on time, etc.
Structural Engineering: This sub-discipline involves studying and analyzing the design of bridges,
flyovers, marine structures, etc. The engineers are responsible to identify the loads, forces and
stress which might act upon the structure and construct structures that are aesthetically
pleasing, safe, durable, economical and serviceable.
Transportation engineering: Transportation engineering is concerned with the design,
construction and maintenance of all forms of public transportation systems, like roads, railways,
ports and airports. Objectives include the improvement of overall traffic movement, reduction
of congestion and minimization of risk of accidents.
Water Resources Engineering: This branch focuses on the design and construction of hydraulic
structures like dams and canals, and generally strives to improve the quality and quantity of
water resources in a specified area. It focuses on the collection and management of water as a
Environmental Engineering: Environmental engineering is mainly concerned with preventing
pollution and safeguarding the environment. Projects undertaken include solid waste
management, treatment of water sources and improvement of the quality of air and water.
Civil engineering has a huge potential for growth and it is also one of the most demanding sectors. In
fact, it can be said that the progress of the world depends on its progress. Population demographics
along with increasing urbanization have facilitated the need for sustainable and efficient infrastructure
solutions. The civil engineering market size is expected to reach USD 11.72 trillion by 2025. Civil
engineers have a multitude of job opportunities all around the globe. Their skill is required from any
minor work to major project and is usually not restricted to any boundary.